what accounted for growing opposition to the war in vietnam

Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) was founded in 1967 and quickly became one of the most visible antiwar groups of the 1960s and 1970s. In April, the Spring Mobilization to End the War in Vietnam witnessed over 100,000 protestors join a nationwide campaign to end the conflict. Search this site. This selection of Vietnam War quotations pertains to anti-war movements and opposition to the Vietnam War. There was also growing opposition amongst students, eager not to be drawn into the bloody pit of Vietnam, and middle class parents concerned about the fate of their children in a remote Southeast Asian country. It was not until 1965 that the antiwar movement exploded. var d = new Date(); 1967 was far more active for the antiwar movement than the previous year. The Johnson administration immediately ordered air attacks against military targets in the north. The Vietnam Day Committee and Women Strike for Peace immediately responded by blockading the Oakland Army Terminal to prevent troop deployments. The media remained wedded to the proposition that the Tet Offensive was an unmitigated disaster that proved the war could not be won. 52 lessons The Vietnam War. domino theory: This was based on the idea that countries on the brink of communism were waiting to fall to communism one after the other. The United States entered the war incrementally between 1950 and 1965, when President Lyndon Johnson began aggressively bombing North Vietnam and sent U.S. Marines to defend South Vietnam. They questioned how the U.S. could be fighting for the freedom of the Vietnamese people if it had to indiscriminately bomb, burn, and imprison the Vietnamese people themselves – for fear that any one of them could be an enemy? Beyond opposition to the draft, anti-war protesters also made moral arguments against the United States’ involvement in Vietnam. Vietnam War Protest: The counterculture of the 1960s was marked by a growing distrust of government, which included anti-war protests, such as the one shown in this picture. Yet most Americans believed he would run again for President the next year. Then economic activity slowed, and the result was recession. document.cookie = "__adblocker=; expires=Thu, 01 Jan 1970 00:00:00 GMT; path=/"; Or should we have stayed out?" just create an account. Local and state elections were held in the United States in late 1966. Due to the draft, U.S. troops numbered 540,000 by 1968. Groups such as Clergy and Laity Concerned focused on organizing a crusade against the war that encompassed all individuals regardless of race, gender, or creed. Create an account to start this course today. While many nations are suffering enormous economic contractions and running to the International Monetary Fund for financial rescues, Vietnam is growing at a 3 percent annual pace. Navigation. In all, 1,728,344 males, age 20 to 26, were drafted to serve. Draft was seen as unfair to blacks and poor. Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. It expanded the U.S. military during the Civil War, both World Wars, and the wars in Korea and Vietnam. Peace movement leaders opposed the war on moral and economic grounds. A growing American casualty list and the uncertain prospects of driving Hanoi out of the war gradually converted the near-unanimous approval of the 1964 Tonkin Gulf Resolution into widespread Congressional and popular opposition to the war. And the United States began to build up its forces in the South. It was not until 1970 that the movement regained momentum. The war cost two billion dollars every month. There was no "glory of war" because of the photographic evidence of the war. These people said the war was a civil war. He rejected sending African Americans to fight in a war abroad when the United States failed to protect their basic liberties at home. Initially, most Americans backed Washington's Vietnam policy. David E. Settje is Professor of History and Director of the Honors Program at Concordia University Chicago. In the 1968 US presidential election, Lyndon B. Johnson decided not to run for reelection. Thus, even though the enemy was thoroughly defeated in Vietnam, thanks to U.S. media, the enemy won the war where it most counted - in the United States. Why did Muhammad Ali refuse to be drafted? The growing opposition to the Vietnam War was partly attributed to greater access to uncensored information presented by the extensive television coverage on the ground in Vietnam. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal During the Vietnam War era, between 1964 and 1973, the U.S. military drafted 2.2 million American men out of an eligible pool of 27 million. Origins of the Cold War. The growing opposition to the Vietnam War was partly attributed to greater access to uncensored information through extensive television coverage on the ground in Vietnam. Beyond opposition to the draft, anti-war protesters also made moral arguments against U.S. involvement in Vietnam. Study.com has thousands of articles about every var setNptTechAdblockerCookie = function(adblocker) { A Gallup Poll from the year 2000: "Looking back, do you think the United States made a mistake sending troops to fight in Vietnam?" The reasons behind American opposition to the Vietnam War fell into several main categories: opposition to the draft; moral, legal, and pragmatic arguments against U.S. intervention; and reaction to the media portrayal of the devastation in Southeast Asia. These quotations have been researched, selected and compiled by Alpha History authors. @media only screen and (min-device-width : 320px) and (max-device-width : 480px) { View 4.docx from HISTORY 1302 at Houston Community College. Some reconstruction has begun. Several news writers, for example, said the number of enemy soldiers killed was much lower than the government reported. Operation Rolling Thunder was the title of a gradual and sustained aerial bombardment campaign conducted by the United States (U.S.) 2nd Air Division (later Seventh Air Force), U.S. Navy, and Republic of Vietnam Air Force (RVNAF) against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) from 2 March 1965 until 2 November 1968, during the Vietnam War. Worth mentioning was the Kent State Shooting which led to the death of four students, making the outcome of the students against the Vietnam war highly disputed. A walled citadel, 2 km by 2 km, as well as a moat, surrounded the city. As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 83,000 Second-wave feminism. We met them because brave men were willing to risk their lives for their nation's security. Vietnam eventually fell completely to communism. The result was inflation. Writer James Reston commented that the anti-war demonstrations were not helping to bring peace to Vietnam. first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Whether the movement was successful is still being debated by historians. document.cookie = "__adblocker=" + (adblocker ? 's' : ''}}. Centered in bohemian havens like San Franci… Ordinary Europeans set aside many of their internal divisions and grievances and rallied behind their monarchs, governments and armed forces. What accounted for growing opposition to the war in Vietnam? Welcome to Claverham Learning Zone The organization also drew thousands of protestors to Washington, D.C. on April 17 as a part of the SDS March on Washington. The Vietnam War. The Vietnam War divided America along all age, race, and gender lines with it came to support for the war. Disillusionment with the war began to surface during the mid-1960s in two widely different groups - those who argued that the United States was wasting lives and resources in Southeast Asia and those who believed that the nation was not adequately supporting its men sent to fight a decisive battle in the struggle against communism. Moreover, he believed that valuable resources had been wasted in a fruitless conflict instead of investing into the Great Society programs, which would have helped develop social and economic equality in the United States. Leadership and Management Online Degrees: What's the Difference? (function(src){var a=document.createElement("script");a.type="text/javascript";a.async=true;a.src=src;var b=document.getElementsByTagName("script")[0];b.parentNode.insertBefore(a,b)})("//experience.tinypass.com/xbuilder/experience/load?aid=bYdYZQml5V"); Fearful of losing Vietnam, yet deterred by fear of provoking war with China, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara came to champion an in-between course of military pressures, one that got America good and committed (enraging domestic dissent from doves), but one with weapons and target restrictions that precluded fully committing US military power (enraging hawkish critics on the right). }, Page last modified: When this lesson is over, you should be able to: To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member. 1. After this preparation, hawkscalled for introducinf ground troops to go into the north and accept their surrender. This is the currently selected item. The American people did not feel like their government was being held accountable. Among numerous smaller campaigns, 1966 witnessed the second and third International Days of Protest, which attracted thousands of protestors. He returned to the United States, and in a 27 February broadcast, described the Tet offensive as an American defeat and recommended the US negotiate a way out of the war. var script = document.createElement("script"); Doves became angry. President Johnson, after viewing this broadcast reportedly declared, "If I've lost Cronkite, I've lost middle America." document.getElementsByTagName("head")[0].appendChild(script); Conscientious objectors did play an active role although their numbers were small. Others did not serve because they were still in school so they simply deferred. They told him that north Vietnamese troops and Viet. The Vietnam War (Vietnamese: Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Vietnamese: Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. Twenty-five percent of total forces in Vietnam were draftees.  President Johnson believed that the United States had to support South Vietnam. 1968 represented a temporary fracturing of the antiwar movement. The 1964-1972 anti-Vietnam anti-conscription movement was specifically aimed at ending Australia’s intervention in Vietnam and the associated conscription scheme. Vietnam at 50: 1969 When Richard Nixon entered the White House on Jan. 20, 1969 support for the war was eroding, especially after the shock of the Tet Offensive the year prior. Robert Kennedy, also a senator, argued that Johnson's policy in Vietnam was severely flawed. And that, he said, would make President Ho continue the war. The student movement arose to demand free speech on college campuses, but as the US involvement in the Vietnam war expanded, the war became the main target of student-led protests. This was attributed to the outcry over Johnson's authorization of Operation Rolling Thunder, a sustained air campaign over North Vietnam, and his introduction of American combat troops on March 8. Religious opposition to the war also mounted during 1966. The North Vietnamese, they argued, were fighting a patriotic war to rid themselves of foreign aggressors. Salaries of the 2.6 million servicemen who served in Vietnam over 11‐ years accounted for much of the cost of the Vietnam war, as did the 4,900 helicopters and … The war in Vietnam had an effect on those elections. The military history of the United States spans a period of over two centuries. Studies were done to measure Americans' opinion on the issue. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. The Tet Offensive was particularly tragic for the South Vietnamese populace. Throngs of men and boys queued at recruitment fairs, eager to sign up. News coverage of the war, which included graphic visual testimonies of the death and destruction in Vietnam, turned US public opinion increasingly against the war. In a speech to a group of lawmakers he said: "Since world war two, this nation has met and has mastered many challenges -- challenges in Greece and Turkey, in Berlin, in Korea, in Cuba. The anti-Vietnam war opposition by students led to the shut-down of many college campuses with the aim of restoring peace and calm. He believed the demonstrations would make Ho Chi Minh think America did not support its troops. They called for a rapid escalation, using air power to take out North Vietnamese ammo dumps, oil storage facilities, key transportation infrastructure such as bridges, key road intersections. © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. Why did Lyndon B. Johnson not run for president again? Amid a growing youth rebellion, Richard Nixon, a conservative and in many ways the antithesis of the let-it-all-hang-out subculture, was inaugurated as president. An error occurred trying to load this video. Dissenters had a variety of motivations, including anti-colonialism, opposition to unprovoked American aggression, resistance to the draft, and humanitarianism, but the consistent underlying ideology remained clear: end the American war in Vietnam. Yet it criticized him and other Democrats for economic problems linked to the war. The issue for the antiwar movement became a question of strategy. According to History Learning Site, some cons of the Vietnam War included its bloody guerrilla warfare, the loss of innocent lives, the draft-- which removed men's choice to serve-- and the belief that it was not the United States' war to fight. Anti-war demonstrations took place in the cities of San Francisco and Chicago. Presidential contenders, such as Eugene McCarthy and Robert Kennedy, began increasing their respective antiwar platforms. This archive, containing 21,477 pages of documents received in response to VVAW’s Freedom of Information Act requests, chronicles the group’s organizing activities across the country. This group of young bohemians, most famously including Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg and William S. Burroughs, made a name for themselves in the 1940s and ‘50s with their rejection of prevailing social norms, including capitalism, consumerism and materialism. View 4.docx from HISTORY 1302 at Houston Community College. There was large social media coverage that gained support from United States citizens, but later called for opposition. It also reverberated loudly back home in America. Get access risk-free for 30 days, The antiwar movement continued to swell from 1966 to 1967. A growing American casualty list and the uncertain prospects of driving Hanoi out of the war gradually converted the near-unanimous approval … Located on the Perfume River in central Vietnam, Hue was the capital of Vietnam from 1802 until 1945. Which was most likely an effect of the Confiscation Acts during the American Revolution? Conscientious objectors did play an active role although their numbers were small. Claims of progress in the war, already greeted with skepticism, lost more credibility in both public and official circles. Vietnam War - Vietnam War - De-escalation, negotiation, and Vietnamization: With the aid of some of the president’s other advisers and elder statesmen from the Democratic Party, Clifford succeeded in persuading Johnson that the present number of U.S. troops in Vietnam (about 550,000) should constitute an upper limit and that Johnson, as chief executive, should make a dramatic gesture for peace. d.setTime(d.getTime() + 60 * 60 * 24 * 2 * 1000); Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you The period of a united antiwar movement suddenly vanished. Women … In many ways, the hippies of the 1960s descended from an earlier American counterculture: the Beat Generation. Now the organizers for the National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam wanted to go further — much further. A number of authors including General William C. Westmoreland (A Soldier Reports), General Bruce Palmer, Jr. (The 25-Year War: America's Military Role in Vietnam), Colonel Harry G. Summers, Jr. (On Strategy: The Vietnam War in Context), Norman B. Hannah (The Key To Failure: Laos and the Vietnam War), and Colonel Charles F. Brower, IV (Strategic Reassessment in Vietnam: The Westmoreland "Alternate Strategy" of 1967-1968), have stated or implied that the US should have used its military forces during the Vietnam War to move into Laos and physically block the Ho Chi Minh Trail. credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. Congress supported the president's actions at that time. The price of many goods in the United States began to rise. The draft, as a system of conscription which threatened lower class registrants and middle class registrants alike, drove much of the protest after 1965. In 1968, who was the antiwar candidate for U.S. president? Some observers in the United States questioned the administration's policy. Hawks, as the initial strategy was found not to be productive, believed that the US should have shifted to something faster. More and more students began to protest. Practice: 1960s America. A ZEALOUS FORCE TO RECKON WITH : THE IRATE AMERICAN PUBLIC In 1965, a majority of Americans supported U.S. policies in Vietnam; by the fall of 1967, only 35 percent did so. This assessment spurred an additional erosion of American support for the war. During the Vietnam War, more than 58,000 Americans died and more than 300,000 were wounded. While the antiwar movement was being waged on the street, the most significant happening of 1967 was the growing opposition from important political and social figures. A dangerous situation seemed to be developing, one which the US government referred to as the "domino theory" -- if South Vietnam were allowed to fall to communism, so eventually would the rest of Southeast Asia. For several years, they had been told that Communist forces were small and were losing badly. Second-wave feminism. Several days later, protestors organized a march on the Pentagon where radicals led by Abbie Hoffman, leader of the Youth International Party, attempted to levitate the building. While college students were not the only ones to protest, student activism played a key role in bringing antiwar ideas to the broader public. The year 1968 was a turning point for the antiwar movement. } American opposition to the war in Vietnam had been previously established during the 1950s, but not to the extent that it was witnessed during the Johnson years. With military escalation came the need for increasing the draft. credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. From 1965 to 1968, thousands of Americans took to the streets and organized dozens of protests. It was during 1967 that prominent American leaders, such as Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr., began speaking out against the war. "true" : "false") + "; expires=" + d.toUTCString() + "; path=/"; Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. Additional opposition groups joined the movement, and, eventually, the National Coordinating Committee to End the War in Vietnam was created to organize the antiwar campaign. courses that prepare you to earn … imaginable degree, area of Campus unrest is one of the most-remembered aspects of the Vietnam War era. The early opposition to the Vietnam War was largely restricted to pacifists and leftists empowered by the successful application of strategic nonviolent action in the U.S. Civil Rights Movement. Up Next. Such authors as Harry G. Summers argue that it was a conventional war which the US failed to recognize as such. Next lesson. U.S. involvement in Vietnam occurred within and because of the larger context of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. From 1965 to 1968, thousands of Americans took to the streets and organized dozens of protests. Learn about the movement, including its leadership, organizations, and impact on President Lyndon B. Johnson in this lesson. Famed journalist Walter Cronkite challenged the United States' policy in Vietnam, contending that the war was a stalemate and the only logical conclusion was a negotiated settlement. Several ran against him in the primary elections held before the party's presidential nominating convention. The antiwar movement from 1965 to 1968 was the first wave of American dissent against the Vietnam War. The antiwar movement that occurred in response to the United States' presence in the Vietnam War had multiple dimensions. When this fell to Vietnamese forces in 1959, the French began to leave Vietnam. Declarations of war in August 1914 generated an upsurge of patriotism across Europe. They wanted the war to end quickly. The images stemming from the Tet Offensive deepened opposition to the war. 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But in 1966, the political if not the military initiative remained in the hands of the North. Regardless, thousands of activists clashed with Chicago police during the convention. He is the author of Lutherans and the Longest War: Adrift of a Sea of Doubt about the Cold and Vietnam Wars, 1964-1975 and Faith and War: How Christians Debated the Cold and Vietnam … Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. Many Americans were surprised, even shocked, that the Communists could launch such a major attack against South Vietnam. Others began pursuing more radical and violent methods as a means of ending the war in Vietnam. opposition to the draft; moral, legal, and pragmatic arguments against U.S. intervention; and reaction to the media portrayal of the devastation in Southeast Asia; made moral arguments against the United States' involvement in Vietnam. Dissenters had a variety of motivations, including anti-colonialism, opposition to unprovoked American aggression, resistance to the draft, and humanitarianism, but the consistent underlying ideology remained clear: e… These authors have all claimed that such a use of US forces would have dramatically changed the outcome of the Vietnam War. The University of Washington has a rich history of antiwar, civil rights, and radical activism. This set the stage for the war on moral and economic grounds Krepinevich, Jr. States... Undeclared and unexplained war in Vietnam fracturing of the most-remembered aspects of the first wave of American soldiers in had. To be productive, believed that the movement primary elections held before the Party 's presidential nominating convention right or. Did not support its troops not approve of the North Vietnamese government to negotiations... David E. Settje is Professor of History and Director of the Vietnam war was a civil war different.. 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To find the right school impacted American public opinion, calling into question and... Suspect that the Tet Offensive was an unmitigated disaster that proved the war Party generally the! February sixth, however, the United States and the rest of Southeast Asia gain independence from powers... Said they did not serve due to a war that was n't.! By July, one-hundred twenty-five thousand Americans were fighting in Vietnam reconsider its commitment told that forces. Aspects of the Cold war between the United States began to leave Vietnam 's actions at time... Called for opposition further — much further American ground combat troops arrived in South Vietnam attacked... Should be able to: to unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com.... Also made moral arguments against the war was a turning point for the antiwar movement than the went... Demonstrations were not helping to bring Peace to Vietnam build up its forces in 1959, the movement! 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